Abstract The present work makes use of the recent experimental observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized clocks in orbit, together with recent theoretical achievements of the Higgs theory to understand the **gravitational** physics. According to the Higgs theory, a Higgs quantum condensate, present throughout space, gives mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism. Hence, this Higgs Quantum Space (HQS) rules the inertial motion of the elementary particles and is locally the ultimate reference for rest and for motions. Many recent experimental observations demonstrate that this HQS is moving round earth and round the sun according to Keplerian velocity fields, consistent with the local main astronomical motions. Inertial motion of matter and propagation of light within this Keplerian velocity field is the quintessence of the **gravitational** physics. In the velocity field of the sun, the planets are locally very closely stationary with respect to the moving HQS. This explains the null results of the Michelson light anisotropy experiments. It also explains the absence of the **gravitational** **time** **dilation**, due to the solar **gravitational** potential, on the GPS clocks, which is predicted by General Relativity, but not observed. Inertial motion of bodies within the earth’s Keplerian velocity field gives origin to the **gravitational** acceleration on earth. In the current theories, space itself is idle and plays no active role in the **gravitational** dynamics. These theories ascribe the whole dynamics to interaction forces, which leads to the actual persistent troubles with gravitation.

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We propose on theoretical grounds that the conventional formulation of the Lo- rentz transformation is incomplete and needs the inclusion of a fabric density variable. General relativity is premised on the speed of light in-vacuuo being universally constant. In turn that premise arose as a simple way to formulate the relativity of simultaneity, and as a consequence of rejection of the aether follow- ing the Michelson-Morley experiment [26]. In contrast our theory splits and treats separately the relativity of observation, versus the speed of light. It pro- poses that the fabric is relativistic in terms of exhibiting Lorentz effects, and that the speed of light is constant within an isotropic fabric, but proposes that the fa- bric density is fundamentally anisotropic and that this affects the speed of light. It is radical to propose fabric density as a new cosmological variable, but it is logically congruent with **gravitational** **time**-**dilation**. **Gravitational** field strength is then a proxy variable for fabric density. In principle this means that fabric density becomes the common cause of relativistic velocity effects and gravita- tional effects, hence may provide a means to explain the correspondence of iner- tial and **gravitational** mass.

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Einstein has related **time** **dilation** to relative velocity. If **time** **dilation** were effectively due to relative velocity, a moving observer obviously could assume that his own reference is stationary and that the hypothetically rest- ing observer is moving. Then by a similar reasoning, as that of Einstein’s hypothetical resting observer could reach to the conclusion that the clock of the hypothetically resting observer is running slow. This is another am- biguity of the TR, now about **time** **dilation** due to the reciprocal symmetry between observers. This ambiguity has lead to the famous twin paradox. The twin paradox never has been adequately resolved. Einstein and other people have claimed that in the case of the twin paradox, the traveling twin necessarily must change inertial ref- erence in various stages of his roundtrip travel, which involves accelerations and that these accelerations sup- press the reciprocal symmetry between the twins and thereby are ultimately responsible for slowing down the aging of the traveling twin. More recently some authors [17] allege that clocks resting in **gravitational** fields too run slow because of their (implicit) upward acceleration and for this reason the GPS clocks that together with earth are free falling in the solar **gravitational** field, should not show the **gravitational** **time** **dilation** due to the solar **gravitational** potential. Nevertheless, from this viewpoint, the GPS clocks are also free falling in the earth’s **gravitational** field and notwithstanding clearly show the **gravitational** **time** **dilation** due to the earth’s gravita- tional field (please see Section 2.2 in Ref. [5] [6] for details). To this should be added that acceleration has been tested by Muon decay within cyclotrons up to 10 19 m/sec 2 with the clear-cut conclusion that accelerations do not cause **time** **dilation** [18]. The experimental observations, described here in Section 3 prove that **time** **dilation** is not caused by relative velocity, however by velocity with respect to the QS in free space and by implicit velocity with respect to the QS within **gravitational** fields. This puts an end to the reciprocal symmetry and hence to the impasses created by this ambiguity.

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When coming to the **gravitational** **time** **dilation**, its noticed that for both differently positioned at a definite distanced observers, the clock that is closer to the **gravitational** mass, i.e. deeper in its "gravity well", appears to go slower than the clock that is more distant from the mass (or higher in altitude away from the center of the **gravitational** mass). That does not mean that the two observers fully agree: each still makes the local clock to be correct; the observer more distant from the mass (higher in altitude) measures the other clock (closer to the mass, lower in altitude) to be slower than the local correct rate, and the observer situated closer to the mass (lower in altitude) measures the other clock (farther from the mass, higher in altitude) to be faster than the local correct rate. They agree at least that the

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Whatever the case, Seidenfeld and Wasserman (1993), along with Herron (1994, 1997), have explored a number of different cases, sometimes offering necessary and sufficient conditions for **dilation** with respect to certain regularity assumptions consistent with paradigmatic models. 17 While focusing on special classes of proba- bility spaces to explore their status with respect to the phenomenon of **dilation** may be a valuable exercise, the presence of **dilation** can be straightforwardly shown to admit a complete characterization in terms of rather simple conditions of deviation from stochastic independence. We articulate this characterization in the next sec- tion. Such a characterization may facilitate a smoother, integrated investigation of the existence and extent of **dilation** as well as questions concerning the preservation of **dilation** under coarsenings, questions Seidenfeld, Wasserman, and Herron have addressed in their articles. Importantly, investigations and explanations of **dilation** need not be tied to the particular way in which Seidenfeld and Wasserman have framed their own research program.

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Correspondingly, **gravitational** wave detectors come in two flavours, laser-interferometers and bar detectors. Historically, the bar detectors were first. The first attempt of detection was made with a bar detector by Joseph Weber (pl. 2) in the 1960s. He used two aluminium cylinders, each about 1.5 m long and 0.5 m thick. When a **gravitational** wave comes through them it rattles the atoms in the aluminium and causes them to vibrate at a characteristic frequency that is detected using piezo-electric transducers. In 1968, he claimed that he had detected **gravitational** waves but this was soon disputed and even today we have not seen these waves. Bar detectors are still in use, see for instance MiniGRAIL (De Waard et al. 2003) in Leiden (pl. 3).

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Formula 43 is often considered to be an approximation to general relativity redshift, but one could also argue the other way around, that GR is an approximation to this formula. The prediction difference between the two formulas can only be observed in very high **gravitational** fields. One of the famous experiments that is claimed to have confirmed general relativity with very high precision is the Pound and Rebka [39] experiment. They measured the **gravitational** redshift in a tower over a distance of approximately 22.5 meters. This was an excellent experiment that got the same result as predicted by Einstein’s general relativity theory. However, this experiment did not provide evidence that the general relativity theory is a complete theory. The experiment was done in a very weak **gravitational** field, where we know that the formula 43 should work just as well. However, the theory proved that Einstein was correct in the notion that gravity affects **time**, something that has been confirmed by a long series of experiments since then. To my knowledge, no one had assumed that gravity could affect **time** before Einstein.

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These clocks were commercial Hewlett-Packard 5061A models, which were not built intentionally for rugged conditions. A simple vibration, shock or temperature test before flying these clocks would have established their ruggedness, but no such evaluations were done. Hafele admitted that environmental studies demonstrate “cesium beam clocks are susceptible to such effects as temperature changes and AC magnetic fields, [but]…no known effect consistently increases or decreases the rates for those clocks” [9, p. 275]. Manufacturing did not have the required precision or ability of today due to variations in electrical length, soldering, switching, transistors, etc., that affected each cesium beam clock uniquely. Heat may cause one cesium clock to run faster, while another would have a slower **time**, but the temperature increment would be predictable and repeatable for that particular unit (assuming no other influences such as vibration concurrently exist). Hafele admitted to Ruger that no accelerometers were used [9, p. 284]. Rueger pointed out that orientation of quartz clocks affected **time** accuracy, which may well affect the cesium clocks when accelerated if not held vertical. Hafele admitted, “I’m not the expert on how these clocks perform under various environmental conditions” [9, p. 286]. It is clear that not much effort was given to isolate the cesium clocks from most environmental influences, and the drift rates do not show the relativity effects claimed in the final 1972 report [7].

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Gravitational field strength is defined as the gravitational force acting on a unit mass in the region of gravitational field.. Gravitational Field Strength.[r]

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Space-**Time** Continuum: It is noticed that, whenever some new invention is declared, a conman man and even the persons engaged in that respective field start, illusive thinking. Illusions stop the progress of the invented fact. Same is happening in respect of 'ct' the space-**time** continuum. Some think it, bending of space like metal plate bending. Actually please excuse me; But, I consider, space-**time** continuum is mathematical process to include all the facts of relativity in a conman formula; conman to all observers in Universe. Please here me that, there is nothing illusive in concept of space **time** continuum. An object orbiting a massive planet or a star, moves free without experiencing, any resultant force on it. The **gravitational** force of the massive body acting on an object under its influence and, centrifugal force due to rotary motion around the massive body of the object, acting on the object opposite to each other; but, they being equal, no resultant force is acting on the object. Hence, the object is moving freely around the massive body as shown in Figure-11.a It is as if the path of the object is circular due to the presence of the mass of the body. The orbiting circular mass-velocity at any point on its orbit can be represented by a tensor, which inherently includes the balancing of **gravitational** force and the centrifugal force. As the distance of object increases from the mass centre; the path of moving object corresponding to its same speed with which it was orbiting circular around the mass; becomes less and less curved; ultimately becomes a straight path. When it comes across another mass during its travel, it accepts more and more bending as it reaches this second mass in its path. Thus, the straight path of an object moving free under its own conserved momentum; includes heights or troughs depending upon on which side the concerned mass is seen. Such, number of paths parallel to each other in a plane, in all possible directions form space-**time** plane or space-**time** continuum as

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Quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy based on a dynamical scalar field whose value changes with respect to cosmological **time**. Its equation of state relates the pressure of the vacuum to its density, and this equation is determined by the potential energy term as well as a kinetic term involving the scalar field. This is to be contrasted with the concordance ΛCDM model where we have a cosmological constant, which does not scale. In fact, in that model the quintes- sence parameter, w , relating pressure to density is by definition precisely equal to −1, indicating that the pressure and density are fixed, where pressure is always equal to the density but negative. While the ΛCDM model is highly successful, quintessence is studied because 1) it may help us better understand the true na- ture of dark energy (the ΛCDM model provides no explanation of either dark energy or dark matter), 2) it could help us resolve the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem, and 3) it may help us understand the coincidence problem, which seeks to address the question as to why now for the unanticipated accele- ration of the universe. Why is the vacuum density parameter, Ω Λ , comparable

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As the various structures move about in such a universe, they are themselves governed by the same properties of **time** **dilation** that brought them together. As a proton moves towards other protons, their momentums will be blocked by **time** **dilation**, fusing them together. Neutrons and electrons could then move towards this increased source of **time** **dilation** forming different elements. In-turn, these atomic structures would move towards other atomic structures resulting in similar interactions governed by the varied **time** dilations of each of the component **time** points. As **time** dilates towards infinity, these atoms would become locked in the form associated with mo- lecules, until some other source of **time** **dilation** were to impact them and change the trajectories of an individual atom.

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In the history of general relativity, the issue of space **time** singularities arises earlier. The physical theory ceases to make sense when basic quantities became infinite a singularity is a sign that the theory has been applied beyond its domain of validity. [1, 15] In theory of general relativity naked singularities occurs in variety of ways. In one of the versions, it is clear that the Cosmic censorship conjecture states that the strong curvature singularities are never naked. So, it is the most important issue which is to be cleared. So, we observe the curvature along the non space like geodesic joining a naked singularity before the same is the best example of counter example to the cosmic censorship curvature. This is achieved by verifying the growth of curvature along both null geodesics and **time** like geodesics joining the naked singularity not necessary the radial ones. Dynamical solutions are always of interest to

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Length contraction becomes possible when the rates or velocities above 41.52 and 6.62 km/s are substituted into the rate times **time** equation that results in values of 55.24 seconds and 346.46 seconds for the **time** correction values and respective corrections. This results in 346.46 km and 2293 or (pi*730.085) km for the faster and slower times or the slower rate produces the original distance and faster rate with less distance or length contraction. Einstein predicted that **time** will show less **time** for higher velocities and the results do confirm the prediction that many scientists have been cautious to approach. The author himself places importance on the elliptical corrections and some caution with due respect which are slightly slower than the 2 **time** correction method that demonstrated similar value of special relativity energies like Einstein’s E=mc 2 .

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There is other interesting work on **dilation** equations afoot. Strang and Zhou have produced at least two interesting works examining aspects of refinable functions which seem slightly off the beaten track. They consider the closure of the set of refinable functions in [43] and inhomogeneous refinement equations in [42]. It might be interesting to see if an analogy of Green’s functions could be developed for inhomogeneous **dilation** equations. To analyse **dilation** equations Haung in [23] studied the operator which projects of f onto span{f(2 · −k) : k ∈ Z } and considered when iterating this operator converges.

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tion to improve the detection of leukocoria, the most common presenting sign in retinoblastoma. Seven consecutive children aged 2 days to 20 months with suspected retinoblastoma were examined by an oph- thalmologist. The red reflex was evaluated for evi- dence of leukocoria before and after pupillary dila- tion. The authors report the detection of leukocoria in only 3 out of 10 undilated eyes with confirmed retinoblastoma. However, after pupillary **dilation** all the affected eyes were noted to have leukocoria. The authors recommend that pediatricians perform pu- pillary **dilation** whenever the possibility of retino- blastoma or leukocoria is considered. They also ref- erence the use of pupillary **dilation** by pediatricians for routine screening of new patients.

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By using a solution of weak mydriatics we pro- duced safe and adequate dilation for funduscopic examination of nursery patients.. With infants hay- ing blue irides, one drop in each eye [r]

According to the literature, the criteria evaluating the evolutionary and chronicity of hydrocephalus are the velocity of ventricular dilation, the consequences of this dilation on the c[r]

the one-loop offshell renormalizability is lost. (However, the renormaliz- ability is restored once one includes a cosmological constant that provides more leverage to absorb the one-loop ultraviolet divergences.) At two-loop, things become worse and the conventional offshell renormalizability is lost. Therefore, although one could conduct various quantum-level studies, the nonrenormalizability would force one to stipulate that the results be taken up to the issue of renormalizability, which has been a frustrating setback to further progress. Motivated by the holographical reduction of the physical states [8], 1 the covariant quantization has recently been revisited [11]: a way out of the longstanding nonrenormalizability has been proposed, establish- ing the renormalizability of the physical states that are a certain subset of the perturbative offshell states. Explicit one-loop renormalization procedures have been worked out for several gravity-matter systems [12]. With the new scheme of quantization, one can be assured that the one-loop analysis will remain valid even to higher loops. Further out, the development has pro- vided a stage for further investigation of quantum-**gravitational** effects and their applications. Through our recent works it has been shown that the quantum-**gravitational** effects are of “order-1” in the sense to be reviewed below.

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